Materials and Methods. We collected tumors from animals in the NTP bioassay of CDMA and GSM exposures. Rats were exposed to CDMA and GSM at exposures similar to those used in the NTP study. Incidence of tumors was determined in these rats and the tumors were histologically confirmed. The incidence of tumors increased with the dose of exposure in a dose-related manner. An increased incidence of tumors was found for both CDMA and GSM exposures. However, the tumors were specific to the exposure modality. The tumors were the only malignant tumors observed during the study. There were significantly more heart tumors in the GSM-exposed rats than in the CDMA-exposed rats. In CDMA-exposed rats, however, there was no increased incidence of tumors of any type in the kidney, liver, or lung. Thus, we found a specific increase in the incidence of heart tumors in GSM-exposed rats at very similar exposures as those used in the NTP study. This effect was not found in CDMA-exposed rats. This outcome is in keeping with previously reported results from the NTP study, which were suggestive of a specific association of heart tumors with GSM exposures.
In this study, we examined the relationship between GSM- and CDMA-induced heart tumors and found an increased incidence of heart tumors in female rats exposed to GSM at levels similar to those used in the NTP study. This finding is in keeping with the NTP study, which suggested the possible role of GSM in the induction of cardiac tumors in females.
In the present study, we investigated whether the exposure levels found to be responsible for the results of a 2-year NTP rat bioassay  are associated with the induction of tumors in the same animals. We hypothesized that there would be a relationship between excess tumors and exposure to radiofrequency (RF) fields by means of radiofrequency exposure and that the tumors would be induced in a dose-related manner as shown previously for heart tumors. In addition, we hypothesized that the tumors would be specific to the exposure modality. We selected a rat model that allows us to compare the exposure levels from 1-year do-not-eat (DNE) studies of CDMA and GSM, which are important exposures of relevance to the public.
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